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Pope Francis is a tough pope to pin down. Since his inauguration in 2013, Francis has made plenty of conservative Catholics uncomfortable by calling bull on trickle down economics and referring to unfettered free markets as the "dung of the devil." He's also taken an outspoken position on man-made climate change, siding with 99% of climate scientists—and against 56% of Congressional Republicans. (The dissonance isn't isolated to Republicans in Congress: It has been a real treat to watch Chris Christie, Marco Rubio, and Jeb Bush—three of the most prominent Catholics in the 2016 Republican field—try to square the pope's infallibility with his positions on, say, global poverty, climate science, and the gender wage gap.)

But he's often just as confounding to the left. Francis' populist papacy holds the line on church doctrine when it comes to reproductive health and LGBTQ rights. The pope has taken a markedly gentler tone when discussing these issues, but that doesn't change the content of his beliefs: he is just as hardline as his predecessors. Francis opposes abortion in all circumstances, is against "artificial" contraception—including condoms, hormonal birth control, and IUDs—and has said, among other remarks about LGBTQ rights, that equal marriage rights for gay and lesbian couples pose a threat to "God’s plan for creation."

Francis: a ~complicated~ pope.

With the people's pope makes a stop in Washington, D.C., on Tuesday, I decided to take a look at some of the major issues of the 2016 campaign and some major issues within the Catholic church and devise a highly scientific pope ranking system to see how the candidates rate.

Five pope heads means the position most closely aligns with the pope's views and statements. Zero pope heads means the pope disagrees with a given position. (And, in some cases, thinks it's a mortal sin!) Candidates get their own ranking if they distinguish themselves on an issue, and a group ranking if they hold largely the same position or are ambiguous about their views.

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Got it? Let's begin. Amen.

Poverty and wages.

Pope Francis is incredibly outspoken on economic justice and global poverty. He's also explicit about the free market policies that he opposes. “Some people continue to defend trickle-down theories which assume that economic growth, encouraged by a free market, will inevitably succeed in bringing about greater justice and inclusiveness in the world," Francis wrote in his 2013 Evangelii Gaudium. "This opinion, which has never been confirmed by the facts, expresses a crude and naive trust in the goodness of those wielding economic power and in the sacralized workings of the prevailing economic system.”

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But addressing mass inequality and widespread poverty is quite the undertaking, so for the purposes of this ranking, we're going to stick to wages and labor practices, another issue the pope has made a focus of his papacy. “You cannot make donations to the Church on the back of the injustice that you commit with your employees," he said earlier this year during a speech from the Vatican. “If you go to Mass on Sunday and take communion, you should ask: what is the relationship with your employees? Do you pay them off the books? Do you pay them a fair salary? Do you pay the pension contributions?”

Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, Bernie Sanders: Supports raising the minimum wage (though Clinton hasn't committed to a firm number while Sanders and O'Malley back $15), paid family leave, and paid sick leave.

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John Kasich: Supports "reasonable" raise to minimum wage.

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Ben Carson: Backs raising the minimum wage, says it should "probably" be higher than the federal minimum of $7.25 an hour.

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Donald Trump, Jeb Bush, Carly Fiorina, Marco Rubio, Ted Cruz, Chris Christie, Rand Paul: Oppose raising the federal minimum wage.

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Abortion and contraception:

The pope is, well, very pope-like on reproductive health, and opposes abortion and contraception in all circumstances. "It is necessary to reaffirm our solid opposition to any direct offence against life, especially when innocent and defenseless, and the unborn child in its mother’s womb is the quintessence of innocence," he said in 2014. "Let us remember the words of Vatican Council II: ‘Therefore from the moment of its conception life must be guarded with the greatest care while abortion and infanticide are unspeakable crimes.’” And while a majority of Catholics support birth control and even abortion in some cases, the pope remains unmoved on the issues.

Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, Bernie Sanders: Support abortion rights, support funding for Planned Parenthood, support the contraceptive mandate of the Affordable Care Act.

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Donald Trump, Jeb Bush, Carly Fiorina, Marco Rubio, Ted Cruz, Chris Christie, Rand Paul, Chris Christie, John Kasich, Ben Carson: Oppose abortion except in limited cases, want to defund Planned Parenthood, and oppose the contraceptive mandate in Affordable Care Act.

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Climate change.

In a nearly 200-page encyclical called "Laudato Si" and subtitled "On Care for Our Common Home," Francis called climate change one of the "principal challenges facing humanity in our day."

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Martin O'Malley, Bernie Sanders: Agree with 99% of climate scientists that climate change is the product of human activity, oppose Keystone pipeline, and have expressed a commitment to investments in alternative energy.

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Hillary Clinton: Supports action to address climate change, hasn't take a position on Keystone, and has been criticized by some experts on not going far enough in her platform on climate change and renewable energy.

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Jeb Bush: Believes climate change might be partly caused by humans, supports Keystone, believes the federal government "should not be dictating what kinds of power are used where."

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Chris Christie, John Kasich: Believes human activity "contributes" to climate change (Christie) or acknowledges climate change is a problem (Kasich), but have records of opposing climate reform efforts as governors of their respective states.

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Ted Cruz: Believes climate change is some kind of hoax.

Ben Carson, Carly Fiorina, Rand Paul, Marco Rubio: Range from taking no clear position to climate skeptics to outright denialists and/or have made no major commitments to energy reform.

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Donald Trump: "I believe there is weather." Trump further elaborated his view of climate change in an interview this week: "Well, first of all, I’m not a believer in global warming. And I’m not a believer in man-made global warming. It could be warming, and it’s going to start to cool at some point."

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Immigration. 

The pope has called on the United States to "welcome and protect" migrant children crossing the U.S.-Mexico border and said he wanted to enter the U.S. from the Mexican border, though a trip to Cuba prevented it. Francis has also condemned "racist and xenophobic attitudes" toward immigrants.

Martin O'Malley: Pro-immigration reform and a path to citizenship. As governor of Maryland, O'Malley signed a state version of the Dream Act and, after initially opposing an effort to allow undocumented immigrants to obtain drivers licenses, eventually signed the bill. He has also spoken out against the U.S. immigrant detention system.

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Bernie Sanders: Supports comprehensive reform, including a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants. Sanders has been criticized by immigrant rights activists for comments he's made suggesting immigration depresses wages. There is a reason why Wall Street and all of corporate America likes immigration reform, and it is not, in my view, that they’re staying up nights worrying about undocumented workers in this country," he said earlier this year. "What I think they are interested in is seeing a process by which we can bring low-wage labor of all levels into this country to depress wages for Americans, and I strongly disagree with that.” Sanders has been outspoken on closing for-profit detention centers.

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Hillary Clinton: Supports comprehensive reform, drivers licenses for undocumented immigrants, DACA and DAPA. But, in comments in 2014 and 2015, said that migrant children crossing the U.S. border without authorization "should be sent back."

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Chris Christie, Carly Fiorina, Ben Carson, Rand Paul, Ted Cruz: Oppose a path to citizenship.

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Jeb Bush, Marco Rubio:  Mixed positions on path to citizenship, and both candidates emphasize border enforcement and security as crux of immigration reform.

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Donald Trump: Welp.

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Death Penalty.

Pope Francis doesn't mince words when it comes to capital punishment: he rejects it in all circumstances. "It is an offense against the inviolability of life and the dignity of the human person, which contradicts God's plan for man and society, and his merciful justice, and impedes the penalty from fulfilling any just objective. It does not render justice to the victims, but rather fosters vengeance," the pope wrote earlier this year. "When the death penalty is applied, it is not for a current act of aggression, but rather for an act committed in the past. It is also applied to persons whose current ability to cause harm is not current, as it has been neutralized—they are already deprived of their liberty."

Bernie Sanders, Martin O'Malley: Oppose the death penalty.

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Hillary Clinton: Clinton has made criminal justice reform a major part of her campaign so far this year, but has been mum on the death penalty since 2000 when she said, while serving in the Senate, that capital punishment had her "unenthusiastic support."

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Rand Paul: Believes the death penalty is a state issue, but hasn't taken a position on it. “I haven’t had a lot of feedback specifically on that,” Paul told the Associated Press earlier this year. “I just haven’t taken a position on the death penalty.”

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Ben Carson: Unclear, but here's an excerpt from his 2012 book America the Beautiful that touches on the issue: "If one believes that killing is wrong in all instances, be it executing a mass murderer or aborting an unborn fetus, it will be very difficult to negotiate a compromise on the issues of capital punishment or abortion. If, on the other hand, an individual is opposed to capital punishment simply because of the great expense involved in each case, and only opposed to late-term abortion, that person would be quite capable of yielding to compromise."

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Donald Trump, Jeb Bush, Carly Fiorina, Marco Rubio, Ted Cruz, Chris Christie, Josh Kasich: Support the death penalty.

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